A CNC controller controls each and every movement of the CNC machine by issuing commands through the CNC software. In essence, it is just like a human brain that controls each movement of the human body.
The controller is made up of components such as a circuit board with various electronic components, and the software which is passed on to the controller from the computer that executes the command once it is deciphered and the appropriate motors are activated.
Job of this piece of Equipment
A CNC machine consists of one section that actually does the desired job-work, be it drilling, milling, cutting, etc. However, it needs to get the commands and coordinates before it can start the job. A CNC controller is assigned the work of converting a computer program, which essentially is a set of commands that is fed into it by a programmer or controller into actual physical motion.
The controller then deciphers these commands and proceeds to activate the related mechanical part of the CNC machine such as the driller, cutter, etc.
This CNC equipment has evolved from the earlier NC or Numerical Controllers that were essentially instructions entered an alphanumeric code.
But with the advent of computers and sophisticated software such as Computer-Aided-Design or CAD and computer-Aided-Manufacturing or CAM, CNC controllers have evolved into tools that can initiate and control extremely complex moves of the CNC machine. CNC controllers are now directly interfaced with the related machine and a programmer can manipulate the entire machine with the help of commands.